The Best Grain Free Dog Food | Reviews and Ratings of the Top Wet and Dry Brands

Looking for the best grain free dog food brands for your pup? Help your dog stay strong and healthy with our wet and dry food reviews here.

Nowadays, choosing a type of dog food to feed your canine companion can put dog owners under a lot of pressure. The market is saturated with products all claiming to be the healthiest, most scientifically valid option, and figuring out exactly how one type of food measures up to another other can take a lot of work.

This kind of struggle is especially difficult when it comes to contemplating limited ingredient dog foods such as grain-free recipes. 

Going grain-free can be a great, healthy choice for your dog that can have a lot of long-term benefits. For example, grain-free dog foods tend to have less nutritionally-devoid ‘filler’ ingredients, which makes room for the more important contents like meat and vegetables. Grain-free diets also better adhere to the canine ancestral diet (Kerns, 2019) and are more in line with what dogs have been found to actually want to eat (Roberts, 2018).

Once you’ve decided grain-free is right for your dog, there are still hundreds of products to narrow down. Recent findings that some grain-free foods lack taurine and contribute to canine heart disorders (Kaplan et. al., 2018) are particularly concerning and mean that it’s more important than ever to find a product that is going to cater to all of your dog’s needs.

To help you out, we’ve compiled a list of the eight best grain-free dog foods on the market. Including reviews of both wet and dry options, each of the foods on this list was tested against a series of rigorous, scientifically-based criteria and ranked accordingly. Every single one of the foods on this list is nutritionally complete and will ensure that your precious pooch has the best chance of staying happy and healthy in the years to come.

How To Choose The Best Grain Free Food For Your Dog

When it comes to choosing the best dog food for your canine companion, there are a number of factors that you need to take into consideration. The first and arguably most important is what the macronutrient profile of the product looks like.

All dog foods contain three main nutritional components; protein, fat, and carbohydrates. The best way to know if a given dog food has the right amount of each is to compare the percentages given to the guidelines developed by the Association of American Food Control Officials. In the most recently updated version of their guidelines (AAFCO, 2014), the following criteria were specified for adult dogs:

  • A protein content of over 18%
  • A crude fat content of over 5.5%

The AAFCO guidelines are the gold standard when it comes to dog nutrition, so all of the foods reviewed on this list had to meet these two criteria.

The third macronutrient, carbohydrates, are a little bit more difficult to deal with. Strictly speaking, dogs don’t actually require any carbohydrates in their diet at all (Roberts, 2018). This is why grain-free foods, which almost always contain lower carbs than their grain-inclusive counterparts, are great for dogs. However, some carbohydrates can actually be beneficial, provided that they come from healthy sources. Because of this, the majority of foods on this list adhere to the following criteria:

  • A carbohydrate content under 30%, with preference given to healthy and digestible carbohydrate sources 

While the above three points are true for adult dog foods in general, there are some specific features of grain-free adult food which also need to be addressed.

Taurine is an important inclusion in the canine diet and is found only in meat. Some grain-free dog foods get the majority of their protein content from legumes rather than meat, and as a consequence have been found to be deficient in taurine. This has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease in dogs (Kaplan et. al., 2018). Because of this, an additional guideline was developed:

  • Meat should be the dominant protein source and preference is given to foods that contain added taurine

Reviews of the Best Grain Free Wet Dog Foods

Our Pick

Nom Nom Now Dog Food

  • Fresh, human-grade ingredients
  • Near-perfect macronutrients
  • Convenient delivery

Doggypedia rating: 5/5

Calories/100g: 119 kCal/100g

First 5 Ingredients: Diced chicken, sweet potatoes, yellow squash, spinach, and sunflower oil.


Macronutrients (Dry-Matter Basis):
Protein: 36.9% minimum
Fat: 26.1% minimum
Carbs: 23.9% maximum

Best grain free dog food

Claiming first place in the wet food category is a product that’s quite different from conventional dog foods: NomNomNow’s Chicken Chow Wow Recipe. Unlike most dog foods, you won’t find this product in a store. Instead, you input information about your dog’s breed, age, weight, and activity levels into NomNomNow’s website, choose your preferred meal plan, and then have it delivered directly to your doorstep.

NomNomNow has four recipes in their range of dog food, and of the three grain-free ones the Chicken Chow Wow formula has the highest protein content. However, their Porkalicious Potluck and Tasty Turkey Fare products are also grain-free and could be switched out for the chicken recipe sometimes, helping to provide diversity to your dog’s diet.

In terms of macronutrients, NomNomNow looks quite different to most mainstream dog foods. It has a protein content of 36.9%, which is actually relatively low for wet dog food, and a comparably high fat content of 26.1%. This is due to the emphasis that NomNomNow places on healthy veggies in its recipes, which lowers the meat content. However, the protein content is still high enough to surpass AAFCO guidelines and the human-grade chicken that’s used really couldn’t be healthier, making NomNomNow superior to other products, even though it may have a lower protein content.

The carbohydrate content of the Chicken Chow-Wow recipe sits at 23.9%, which is within the guidelines but it somewhat higher than most wet dog foods. Again, this is due to the inclusion of healthy, digestible veggies like sweet potatoes and squash.

As well as having meat listed as the first ingredient, NomNomNow’s Chicken Chow-Wow contains added taurine, meaning that you can feed your pooch this food knowing that you’ve taken steps to ensure their heart stays healthy.

Obviously, a huge benefit to this product is the convenience. Rather than having to go out and stock up on dog food every week, or else buy in bulk and have cans littering your home, it’s delivered to your door when you need it. Because of this, NomNomNow is particularly great for pet parents who’re on-the-go.

The only real downside to NomNomNow is the price which is high. However, there are options for pet owners who are on a budget. NomNomNow offers several different meal plans, including one that is much cheaper and acts as a supplement for your dog’s existing diet rather than a stand-alone food.

All in all, NomNomNow’s Chicken Chow-Wow recipe is a unique dog food that surpasses all of its competition. Its macronutrient balance is different from most other wet dog foods but still hits every target, the recipe includes lots of healthy veggies, and the meals are delivered directly to your door. What’s not to love? Highly, highly recommend.

Get 50% Off Your First Nom Nom Now Order!


Nature’s Variety Instinct Beef And Venison

  • High in Healthy Omega 3’s
  • Good macronutrient balance
  • 2 healthy meat sources

Doggypedia rating: 4.5/5

Calories/100g: 130 kCal/100g

First 5 Ingredients: Beef, Venison, Beef Broth, Beef Liver, and Ground Flaxseed.


Macronutrients (Dry-Matter Basis):
Protein: 47.7% minimum
Fat: 34.1% minimum
Carbs: 4.55% maximum

A Top rated grain free dog food

Coming in at number two in the wet food category is Nature’s Variety’s Instinct Beef and Venison recipe. With two quality meat sources and a great macronutrient profile, this product certainly deserves its high ranking.

A particular benefit of this food to note is the inclusion of both beef and venison in the recipe. Many wet dog foods only have one type of meat, which can lead to issues as some meats are deficient in one or more amino acids. Instinct Beef and Venison avoids this problem altogether by including two types of meat, which is a big plus.

In terms of macronutrients, this product hits all of the right targets. It has 47.7% protein and just 4.55% carbohydrates. The fat content is 34.1%, which is a little on the high side, but the energy density of the food is fair, so it’s unlikely to lead to weight gain. In fact, the extra fat can be viewed as a positive, as it improves the taste of the food.

Nature’s Variety also claims that the product is high in natural sources of omega-3 fatty acids, which help with skin and coat health. This is assertion is easily verifiable from looking at the ingredients list. Flaxseed, listed as the fifth ingredient, is high in omega-3. Some other interesting inclusions to the ingredient list include artichokes, which are rich in Vitamin C and antioxidants, and broccoli, which is high in fiber. 

All in all, Nature’s Variety’s Instinct Beef and Venison is a quality dog food. It has a good macronutrient balance, is high in omega-3, and includes some unique ingredients to boot. 


Ollie Beef Recipe

  • Includes healthy organ meat
  • Excellent macronutrients
  • Convenient delivery

Doggypedia rating: 4/5

Calories/100g: 154 kCal/100g

First 5 Ingredients: Beef, beef heart, sweet potato, peas, and potato.


Macronutrients (Dry-Matter Basis):
Protein: 37.5% minimum
Fat: 31.3% minimum
Carbs: 21.9% maximum

All natural grain free dog food

Claiming third place is another boutique dog food brand, Ollie. Like our editor’s pick NomNomNow, the convenience and quality ingredients is really what sets this product apart.

Ollie offers four recipes, which the customer can choose from based on recommendations from the company after entering their dog’s details. Of the four recipes, the beef-based formula is a clear standout, including beef heart, kidney, and liver as well as regular cuts of meat. Organ meat is particularly beneficial to dogs, as it’s high in vitamins (Williams, 2007), so this is a big plus.

In terms of macronutrients, Ollie’s Beef Recipe contains 37.5% protein, 31.3% fat, and 21.9% carbs. These percentages all comply with AAFCO guidelines and are sourced from healthy ingredients. Unfortunately, Ollie doesn’t include any taurine, but beef is high in taurine and therefore this isn’t too much of a concern.

Other interesting features of this recipe include rosemary, which has natural anti-microbial properties, blueberries, which are high in antioxidants, and iodized salt, which helps to ensure your dog is getting the correct levels of iodine.

A potential downside to this product is that the food arrives in quite large batches- two weeks worth of food at a time. While this cuts down on delivery costs, all of the food must be refrigerated, which means a potentially big inconvenience unless you have a lot of extra fridge space.

In sum, Ollie’s beef recipe is a great choice for your dog, with high-quality organ meat, a good macronutrient profile, and a strong ingredient list. However, the lack of added taurine may worry some dog owners and the food is delivered in big, potentially inconvenient batches. 

Best Value

American Journey Grain-Free Variety Pack

  • Cheapest good quality food
  • Good macronutrient balance
  • No fillers

Doggypedia rating: 4/5

Calories/100g: 97 kCal/100g

First 5 Ingredients: Chicken, Chicken Broth, Beef Broth, Chicken Liver, and Dried Egg White.


Macronutrients (Dry-Matter Basis):
Protein: 44.4% minimum
Fat: 27.8% minimum
Carbs: 11.1% maximum

Good grain free dog food

Snatching up the last spot in the wet food category is American Journey’s Beef and Chicken grain-free variety pack. With two types of food included and an affordable price, this food is great for pet parents who want quality, but want it on a budget.

In terms of macronutrients, the beef and chicken recipes both have 44.4% protein, 27.8% fat, and 11.1% carbs. Given the affordable price, this is a fantastic nutrient profile, largely because the absence of grains eliminates the possibility of low-nutrient fillers. Instead, the first four ingredients of the chicken recipe and the first five ingredients of the beef recipe are all meat.

Aside from the meat, notable ingredients include flaxseed, which is a source of omega-3 fatty acids, and dried beet pulp, which is high in fiber. Neither of the recipes contain added taurine, but given the high meat content this isn’t something to worry too much about. 

A potential downside to this product is the energy density which is quite low. Because of this, you’ll need to feed more of the food to your dog to provide the same calories as a food with a higher energy density, which somewhat offsets the cheaper price.

All in all, American Journey’s Beef and Chicken variety pack provides a solid macronutrient profile for a much more affordable price than many other grain-free wet foods.


The Best Grain-Free Dry Dog Foods

Our Dry Food Pick

Wysong Epigen 90

  • Easily the best dry food available
  • Almost no fillers
  • Very high protein

Doggypedia rating: 5/5

Calories/100g: 489 kCal/100g

First 5 Ingredients: Chicken Meal, Organic Chicken, Meat Protein Isolate, Chicken Fat (preserved with Mixed Tocopherols), and Gelatin.


Macronutrients (Dry-Matter Basis):
Protein: 70% minimum
Fat: 17.8% minimum
Carbs: 3.3% maximum

Best Grain Free Dry Dog Food

Coming in at number one in the dry food category is Wysong’s Epigen 90 kibble. Along with a fantastic macronutrient balance, this food has a few features that really make it stand out from the crowd.

Arguably the most unique feature about Wysong’s Epigen 90 is that it’s suitable for both dogs and cats. For pet parents who have a dog and cat under the same roof, this is a huge bonus as it means you don’t need to worry about your dog getting into your cat’s food, or vice versa. This versatility is increased even further by the fact that the food is suitable for all breed types and sizes of dog, including large breed dogs and small breed dogs.

Another key feature of this food is the protein content, which is off-the-charts. The dry-matter protein content sits at 70%, which is unprecedented in dry foods. The high protein can be attributed to a high meat content, with chicken meal and organic chicken both making an appearance in the first five ingredients. The ‘meat protein isolate’ also helps to boost the overall protein content. Normally, unspecified ‘meat’ sources would be a red-flag, but Wysong insists that the isolate is 100% pork protein.

In comparison to the high protein, the fat content is quite modest, sitting at 17.8%. Predictably, the carbohydrates are very low, making up only 3.3% of the dry matter. For foods that have a very low carbohydrate content, a lack of fiber is sometimes a problem, but Wysong Epigen does contain a safe level of fiber to keep your dog’s tummy happy. This is likely due to the inclusion of chia seeds, which provide a high level of fiber, as well as fatty-acids.

Wysong Epigen 90 also contains added taurine, which is a positive for dog owners concerned about the potential negative effects of grain-free foods.

The only real negative aspect of this product is the energy density, which is quite high. However, any potential weight gain can be avoided by sticking strictly to the feeding guidelines, which give an indication of how much you should feed based on your dog’s weight.

All in all, Wysong Epigen 90 is a real stand-out when it comes to grain-free dry food. It has an incredibly high protein content, is suitable for multi-pet families, and has great ingredients to boot. 


Nature’s Variety Instinct Ultimate Protein

  • Thirteen vitamin supplements
  • High-protein content
  • Healthy Cage-free duck

Doggypedia rating: 4.5/5

Calories/100g: 451 kCal/100g

First 5 Ingredients: Duck, Chicken, Chicken Eggs, Tapioca, and Ground Flaxseed.


Macronutrients (Dry-Matter Basis):
Protein: 52.2% minimum
Fat: 18.9% minimum
Carbs: 20.0% maximum

A Dog Food Without Grains

Snatching up second place is Nature’s Variety’s Instinct Ultimate Protein dog food. With a perfect macronutrient balance and high-quality ingredients, this product is an excellent option for your dog.

Instinct Ultimate Protein contains cage-free duck as the first ingredient, which is great for those pet parents concerned about the ethical sourcing of meat. The duck is followed by chicken as a secondary meat source, which provides a little extra variety in your pooch’s diet. Nature’s Variety claims that 90% of the protein in this product is sourced from duck, chicken, and chicken eggs.

Other notable ingredients include ground flaxseed, which is a great source of omega-3 and fiber, thirteen different vitamin supplements, and pumpkin seeds, which are said to be a natural remedy for canine worms. 

These quality ingredients translate into a great macronutrient profile. Instinct Ultimate Protein contains 52.2% protein, which may seem small in comparison to Wysong Epigen but is actually still exceptionally high for a dry dog food. The fat content is 18.9% and the carbohydrate content sits at 20.0%, which is perfectly acceptable considering that the carbs don’t come from unhealthy grain fillers.

Again, this product contains added taurine, which reduces the risk of heart disease and can put owners’ minds at ease.

In sum, Instinct Ultimate Protein is a fantastic dry dog food with no real negative aspects to it. 

Best Meat Sources

Taste Of The Wild High Prairie

  • Seven different healthy meat sources
  • Includes environmentally friendly bison meat
  • Great nutrient profile

Doggypedia rating: 4.5/5

Calories/100g: 372 kCal/100g

First 5 Ingredients: Buffalo, Lamb Meal, Chicken Meal, Sweet Potatoes, and Peas.


Macronutrients (Dry-Matter Basis):
Protein: 35.6% minimum
Fat: 20.0% minimum
Carbs: 35.6% maximum

A Grain Free Gluten Free Dog Food

Coming in at third place on this list of the best grain-free dog foods is Taste of the Wild’s High Prairie dry food. With an impressive seven different meat sources and a good macronutrient balance, this formula is a great, grain-free pick for your precious pooch.

Arguably the best thing about Taste of the Wild’s High Prairie recipe is, as mentioned before, the number of meat sources. The product includes buffalo, lamb, chicken, bison, venison, beef, and ocean fish in its ingredient list. Diversity of meat sources means diversity of nutrients, which is important to ensure that your dog is getting all of the amino acids that he or she needs. 

The macronutrient balance of this product is fair, with 35.6% protein and 20.0% fat. This may seem small in comparison to the other dry foods on this list, however, it’s important to remember that only the very best of the best are being reviewed here. A protein content of 35.6% is exceptional for a dry dog food, despite being lower than some of the other products.

Another potential selling point of this product is the inclusion of bison meat. Bison are less likely to congregate around water sources that cattle or sheep are, meaning that they cause less erosion and therefore have a lower impact on the land (Wall, 2019).

Other notable ingredients include blueberries and raspberries, which are high in antioxidants, dried chicory root, which is a good source of fiber, and Yucca Schidigera Extract, which helps to control the odor of dogs’ waste. Once again, Taste of the Wild includes added taurine to help promote cardiac health.

The major downside to this product is the carbohydrate content, which is 35.6% and therefore higher than the specified 30%. However, given that the sources of carbohydrates are all healthy veggies, this doesn’t pose too much of a disadvantage. Furthermore, the meat content is high enough that the extra carbs don’t mean your dog is missing out on anything.

In sum, Taste of the Wild’s High Prairie is a great pick for your dog. It includes seven different meat sources and has a good nutrient profile. The high carbohydrate content isn’t necessarily ideal but also isn’t a clear-cut problem.

Best Taste

Victor Ultra Pro 42 Grain-Free

  • Great macronutrient levels
  • Best tasting! Great for picky dogs
  • Tons of protein!

Doggypedia rating: 4/5

Calories/100g: 389 kCal/100g

First 5 Ingredients: Chicken Meal, Beef Meal, Chicken Fat (preserved with mixed Tocopherols), Peas, and Blood Meal..


Macronutrients (Dry-Matter Basis):
Protein: 46.2% minimum
Fat: 24.2% minimum
Carbs: 20.9% maximum

Healthy Grain Free Dog Food

Claiming the final place in the dry food category is Victor’s Ultra Pro 42 Grain-Free dog food. This product has a great macronutrient balance and a good variety of quality protein sources included, although it isn’t without its drawbacks.

In terms of macronutrients, Victor’s Ultra Pro hits all of the right values. It has a high protein content of 46.2% and a carbohydrate content of 20.9%. The fat content, 24.2%, is the highest in the dry food category and means that even picky eaters are likely to enjoy the taste. 

A big upside to this product is the inclusion of four different types of meat; chicken, beef, pork, and menhaden fish.  As mentioned before, more types of meat means a greater diversity of nutrients, which is a huge plus. This particular combination of meats seems to be a favourite amongst dogs, too, as almost all customers report their pooches loving the taste.

Once again, this product does contain taurine as an additive, which will help to ensure your dog’s heart health.

There is a negative side to Victor’s Ultra Pro, however. The meat sources are all in a ‘meal’ form, which means that they’re by-products. Meat meals have a low moisture content and a much higher protein content than regular meat, which is likely how Victor has boosted the protein content so much. Unfortunately, it’s difficult to make generalisations about the quality and nutritional content of meat meals, as they can be either high or low grade. However, the general consensus amongst animal nutritionists is that real meat is preferable to meat meals. The same goes for the somewhat disturbingly named ‘blood meal,’ which is a blood concentrate and a further source of animal protein.

Overall, Victor’s Ultra Pro is a good dog food, with a good macronutrient balance and a great taste. However, the inclusion of meat meals instead of real meat sources is a definite downside. 

Benefits of Grain Free Dog Food

So, why all the hype about grain-free dog foods? Are they actually better for your pooch, or is it just a marketing buzz-word to get you to buy more expensive products? The answer to this question requires a bit of nuance.

On the positive side, a big selling point for grain-free dog food is that it seems to be what dogs want to eat. The ancestral diet of canines didn’t include grains (Kerns, 2019), making grain-free dog food the type of diet that your dog’s digestive system initially evolved to handle. A study conducted in fifteen adult dogs also found that when left to choose their own diets, dogs prefer to stick to foods with a high protein and fat content while all but ignoring food that’s high in carbohydrates (Roberts, 2018). While some grain-free foods do still have a high carb content, on average they contain a much higher protein and fat content. 

Another argument for grain-free dog foods is that it creates a healthier macronutrient balance. Many dog food companies pack their products full of grain-by products, which have almost no nutritional value beyond empty calories. This is done to drive the price of manufacturing down, but means that the important macronutrients like protein and fat are being replaced. In grain-free dog foods, this is far less likely to happen. While some companies still try to cut costs wherever possible and you should always look at the ingredients list to make sure that there aren’t high levels of nutritionally-devoid fillers, the chance of any given grain-free dog food having a healthy macronutrient balance is much higher than for grain-inclusive foods.

Further to this, grain-free food forces companies to get creative with their recipes. Because traditional ingredients like rice and barley are no longer able to be included, there will generally be more interesting inclusions like sweet potato, which is a highly digestible carb source, flaxseed, which is high in omega-3, and other veggies. These foods aren’t commonly seen in grain-inclusive dog foods and provide extra variety to your dog’s diet.

However, there are some potential drawbacks to grain-free food. The major argument that most grain-free shunners cite is that while a grain-free diet may have been beneficial for wolves, domestic dogs don’t necessarily have the same nutritional requirements. Wolves, for example, don’t produce any amylase, which is the enzyme that breaks down starch, which is found in grains. While dogs don’t produce amylase in their saliva like humans do, it has been found that they actually secrete amylase from their pancreas (Arendt et. al., 2014), which many take to mean that their digestive systems have evolved to cater to a more carbohydrate-rich diet. While grain-free foods often have sources of starch, for example potatoes, grain-inclusive foods generally have more.

Another important note is that grains, provided that they’re the right source, can actually be a source of vitamins and fiber. Whole grains like brown rice aren’t empty sources of carbohydrates like some grain-free advocates claim, but actually can be a great inclusion to dog foods.

Further to this, there’s recently been some concerns about the safety of grain-free dog food. Specifically, there has been research linking certain brands of grain-free food to heart disease. Scientists found that some grain-free foods are deficient in taurine, which can lead to dilated cardiomyopathy, a disorder that can lead to heart failure (Kaplan et. al, 2018). Since taurine is found in meat, picking a food that had a high meat content like the ones on this list should circumvent this problem, but research in this area is still developing.

Because of these points, it isn’t fair to say that grain-free dog foods are better than every grain-inclusive food. Rather, the proportion of grain-free foods that have a healthy macronutrient balance and great ingredients is higher than the proportion of grain-inclusive foods that have the same. Overall, grain-free is still a great choice for your pooch with some very clear benefits, but this doesn’t mean that grain-inclusive foods should be demonised.

Are Dogs Allergic to Grains?

It’s rare, but it’s true that some dogs are allergic to grain. For these pooches, eating grains can cause itchy skin, red skin, ear infections, and excessive paw-licking. If your dog is displaying these symptoms, rather than immediately switch him or her over to a grain-free formula, it’s best to make a visit to your vet. Dogs can be susceptible to many different kinds of food allergies, for example allergies to beef or dairy, which can have similar symptoms to a grain allergy. Gluten allergies are also possible in dogs, and while most grain-free foods are gluten free it’s best to check. Your vet will be able to verify what your dog’s allergy is and then recommend you change their diet accordingly.

Read More Dog Food Reviews: Best Puppy Food for Labs and Best Hypoallergenic Dog Foods


  • Canine Ancestral diet: Kerns, N. (2019). The Ancestral Dog Food Diet – Whole Dog Journal. [online] Whole Dog Journal. Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2019].
  • Optimal carbohydrate content and canine self-selecting diet: Roberts, MT, Bermingham, EN, Cave, NJ, Young, W, McKenzie, CM, Thomas, DG. Macronutrient intake of dogs, self‐selecting diets varying in composition offered ad libitum. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr. 2018; 102: 568– 575.
  • DCM linked to Taurine deficient grain-free foods: Kaplan, J., Stern, J., Fascetti, A., Larsen, J., Skolnik, H., Peddle, G., Kienle, R., Waxman, A., Cocchiaro, M., Gunther-Harrington, C., Klose, T., LaFauci, K., Lefbom, B., Machen Lamy, M., Malakoff, R., Nishimura, S., Oldach, M., Rosenthal, S., Stauthammer, C., O’Sullivan, L., Visser, L., William, R. and Ontiveros, E. (2018). Taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy in golden retrievers fed commercial diets. PLOS ONE, 13(12), p.e0209112.
  • AAFCO 2014 Recommendations: The 2014 AAFCO Dog Food Nutrient Profile for Growth and Reproduction. (2019). [ebook] AAFCO. Available at: [Accessed 28 Oct. 2019].
  • Benefits of organ meat: WILLIAMS, P. (2007). Nutritional composition of red meat. Nutrition & Dietetics, 64(s4 The Role of), pp.S113-S119.
  • Bison in dog food: Wall, T. (2019). Bison: sustainable and novel pet food protein. [online] Available at: [Accessed 13 Oct. 2019].
  • Pancreatic amylase in dogs: Arendt, M., Fall, T., Lindblad-Toh, K. and Axelsson, E. (2014). Amylase activity is associated withAMY2Bcopy numbers in dog: implications for dog domestication, diet and diabetes. Animal Genetics, 45(5), pp.716-722.
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